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  CEMOP - Center of Excellence in Microelectronics Optoelectronics and Processes Last modified: 16 June 2003.
Research & Development
  List of All International Projects
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Already Concluded

List of All National Projects
In Activity
Already Concluded

  Start up projects that gave rise to the appearance of CEMOP
International research projects already concluded

“Handling and Assembly of Functionally Adapted Microcomponents-HAFAM”
UE contract nº FMRX-CT97-0141
Duration: 01/98 to 12/02.
Partners: Univ. Wien-TUW.IFWT (AT); CETEHOR (FR); FORTH-HELLAS (GR); IMM (DE); IMT (CH); METACON (AT); MTE (AT); Sincrotone Trieste (IT); CEMOP/UNINOVA (PT)
Responsible: E. Fortunato

HAFAM is a European network that aims to investigate the possibilities and search for practical solutions and equipment for the translation of micro handling and micro assembly from manual area, which is performed mostly in research laboratories, to automated processes applicable to industrial production, for real use of MEMS.
Summary of the main results achieved
The project goals and deliverables were achieved, being a prototype of assembling nanocomponents and corresponding software delivered by the project coordinator to the industries related to the project. Apart from that, several scientific achievements were obtained in the field of optical sensor.

Main papers published

POPOVIC, G., W. BRENNER, W. DETTER, R. DUFFAIT, G. KIRIAKIDIS, M. NIENHAUS, N. DE ROOIJ, F. DE BONA, R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO, Handling and Assembling of Functionally adapted micro components- HAFAM, An European network, in Proc. of the 1998, Microsystem Symposium, Delft, Netherlands, 10-11 September, pp. 133-134, (1998), eds H. Reichel and A. Heuberger

POPOVIC, G., W. BRENNER, W. DETTER, R. DUFFAIT, G. KIRIAKIDIS, M. NIENHAUS, N. DE ROOIJ, F. DE BONA, R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO, Handling and Assembling of Functionally adapted microcomponents- HAFAM, An European approach in the field of training and research, in 6th International Conference and Exhibition on Micro, Opto, Mechanical Systems and Components, Potsdam, Germany, December 1-3, 1998, VDE-Verlag Berlin und Offenbach (1998), ISBN 3-8007-2421, pp. 725-727 (1998).

E. FORTUNATO, P. TEODORO, V. SILVA, I. FERREIRA, Y. NUNES, N. GUIMARÃES, F. SOARES, F. GIULIANI, G. POPOVIC, W. BRENER AND R. MARTINS. “Performances of an optical ruler based on one-dimensional hydrogenated amorphous Si position-sensitive detectors produced using different metal contacts”. Phil. Mag. B, vol. 80, nº4 (2000), pp. 765-774.

E. FORTUNATO, I. FERREIRA, F. GIULIANI, P. WURMSDOBLER, R. MARTINS. “New ultra-light flexible large area thin film position sensitive detector based on amorphous silicon”. J. of Non-Cryst. Solids, 266-269, (2000) pp. 1213-1217.

R. MARTINS, P. TEODORO, F. SOARES, I. FERREIRA, N. GUIMARÃES, E. FORTUNATO, J. BORGES, G. JOSÉ, A. GROTH, L. SCHULTZE, D. BERNDT, F. REICHEL AND F. STAM. “Application of amorphous silicon thin film position sensitive detector to optical rulers”. Advanced Engineering Materials, Vol 3 nº3 (2001) pp. 174-177.

“New Materials for Intelligent sensors-MATISE”
ALFA network, Ref. 50057.8
Duration: 06/99 to 06/02.
Partners: CENIMAT/FCTUNL (PT); Ecole Polytechnique de Palaiseau (FR); Conselho Superior de Investigação Científica (SP); Univ. of S. Paulo (BR); National Univ. of San Martin (AG).
Responsible: E. Fortunato (coordinator)

The aim of this project is to establish the basis concerning the existing know how and its transfer in Europe/Latin America in the field of thin and thick films for sensor’s applications.

Summary of the main results achieved
The establishment of contacts that led to the launch of common projects in the area. The enhancement of the group know how in using oxide thin films as gas sensors.

Main papers published
L. GRIGORE, A. MEGHEA, O. GRIGORE, R. MARTINS. “Thermodynamic Properties of Ternary Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions”. Physics and Chemistry of Liquids, vol. 37, (1999), pp. 409-428.

E. FORTUNATO, A. MALIK, R. MARTINS. “Amorphous silicon thin films applied to photochemical sensors”. Vacuum 52, (1999), pp. 41-44.

P. NUNES, E. FORTUNATO, A. LOPES, R. MARTINS. “Influence of the deposition conditions on the gas sensitivity of zinc oxide thin films deposited by spray pyrolysis”. Int. J. of Inorganic Materials, 3 (2001) pp. 1129-1131.

P. NUNES, E. FORTUNATO, P. VILARINHO, R. MARTINS. “Effect of different dopants on the properties of ZnO thin films”. Int. J. of Inorganic Materials, 3 (2001) pp. 1211-1213.

A. Lopes, E. Fortunato, P. Nunes, P. Vilarinho, R. Martins. “Correlation between the microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of SnO2 thin film gas sensors”. Int. J. of Inorganic Materials, 3 (2001) pp. 1349-1351.

“Large Scale facility in Microelectronic Reliability, Failure and Reverse Engineering”
Duration: from 06/97 to 08/01
Partners: NMRC (IRL); FCTUNL (PT):
Responsible: E. FORTUNATO

To perform R&D work in the fields of device testing and characterisation, using equipment’s no available in Portugal for routine standardised measurements such as SIMS, spectroscopic ellypsometry, ageing tests in contacts and films, spectral micro-Raman, failure analysis of electronic contacts, training of young scientists and technicians. Within the frame of this project we are analysing thin films based in Si as well the new metallurgical system that we are developing for industrial applications.

Summary of the main results achieved

Specific formation of post graduation students in surface analysis and tool diagnostics (SIMS, RAMAN and Ellipsometry) and to support some basic R&D work ongoing at CEMOP/CENIMAT.
“Transition Scheme through a Sustainable Energy System in Sahelian Countries”, EC DGXII INCO-DC (nº.IC18CT970168)
Duration: from 12/97 to 12/01
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (SP); Organisation Of African Unity – Nigeria; Direction Nationale des Ressources Forestieres Fauniques et Halieutique – Mali; Service de l’ Energie en Milieu Sahelien SEMIS – Senegal; Ministere de l’ Hydraulique et de l’ Energie – Mauritanie
Responsible: L. Guimarães (coordinator)

An analysis of the identified problems highlights that energy is one of the most important aspects of the region development. Under the framework of previous researches EU and local experts, together with local authorities unanimously agree that the solving of the energy problems is the only way to establish a realistic basis for a sustainable development of the Sahelian countries. In the same time their recommendations guide to the necessity of a new energy concept regarding development.
One of the main objectives of the present proposal is to develop a complete and complex set of strategically solutions for the implementation of a sustainable energy system in Sahel region.
The second one is to provide a package of short, medium and long-term economical, technological, social and political policy options for the transition through the new energy system. The options will be developed in terms of targets, implementation methods, and monitoring and evaluation criteria.

Summary of the main results achieved

GUIMARÃES, L., C. CARACALEANU, A. RIBAS and A. GONÇALVES, Improvements in PV pumping systems, in International Renewable Energy Conference & Workshop, Cairo - Egypt, May (1997) p. 69.

“Deployment of Sustainable Energy Systems: An Agenda for Cooperation”
Duration: 01/97 to 09/01
Partners: TERI, Índia; FCTUNL (PT); Institute of Technology of Bandung, Indonesia; Energy Research Institute, Thailand; WIP, Germany; ECN, The Netherlands; Las Palmas University, Spain; SAAR, Spain; CRES, Greece; Institute of Nuclear Energy Technology, China
Responsible: L. Guimarães

This concerted action is to draw upon the expertise available with European partners and facilitate networking between European and Asian counterparts. As also among Asian partners, to share experiences in the following fields: (i) development of renewable energy in Asia and (ii) implementation of policies to mitigate air pollution in Asia. The sharing of experiences would translate into co-operation, leading to bilateral or multilateral initiatives in different areas such as technology, policy interventions and implementation strategies.

“Optical Detectors based on Thin Film Technology for Industrial Applications” - POTHINFILM”, a NATO SfS, project with nºPO-931712
Duration: 011/94 to 04/01.
Responsible: R. Martins (coordinator), E. Fortunato.

The aim of this project was to develop 1D and 2D large area position detectors based on amorphous silicon technology, to be used in alignments and control applications. The work performed involved CEMOP (R. Martins), CENIMAT (B. Fernandes) a company (D. Nunes and L. Fernandes, EID) and a national Institute (F. Carvalho, INETI).

Summary of the main results achieved
The results until now obtained were always well classified by the NATO Consultants (see annex 0) those even are doing efforts to protect the results achieved though a World-wide-patent. The results of this project lead also to the formation of 2 Master students (from EID, G. Evans and P. Louro). This also led to complement the final part of the PhD thesis of E. Fortunato, the actual head of CENIMAT.
As measurable results of this project we have already the following deliverables: 1995 ANIMEE Innovation and creative prizes for the 1D and 2D position sensors. Besides that, prototype demonstrators were already built and their performances and potentialities are disseminated through the Portuguese Innovation Agency in the SUPERVAL catalogue. Besides that, we have already published 3 chapters of books, 18 papers in International Journals with referee and 8 papers in international proceedings with referees.

Main papers published
“Thin Film Position Sensitive Detectors based on a-Si:H Devices”,
E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS, Chapter of the book titled: “Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon” of Solid State Phenomena, edited by G.E. Murch, H. Neber-Aeschbacher e F.H. Wöhlbier, Scitec Publications Ltd (1995), pp. 883-931,.vol. (44-46) 1995.

R. MARTINS, G. LAVAREDA, E. FORTUNATO, F. SOARES, L. FERNANDES AND L. FERREIRA. “A Linear Array Position Sensitive Detector Based on Amorphous Silicon”. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66(11), p. 5317 (1995).

E. FORTUNATO, G. LAVAREDA, R. MARTINS, F. SOARES, L. FERNANDES “Large Area 1D Thin Film Position Sensitive Detector with high Detection Resolution”. Sensors & Actuators A 51, p. 135 (1996).

R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO “Lateral Effects in Amorphous Silicon Photodiodes”.. Optical Materials 5, p. 137 (1996).

E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS. “Role of the collecting resistive layer on the static characteristics of 1D a-Si:H thin film position sensitive detector”. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67 (8), pp. 2702-2707 (1996).

A. MALIK, R. MARTINS. “Silicon active optical sensors: from functional photodetectors to smart sensors”. Sensors & Actuators A, 67, 68-71 (1998).

E. FORTUNATO, A. MAÇARICO, I. FERREIRA, J. CARVALHO, J. FIDALGO A. BICHO, G. LAVAREDA, M. QUINTELA, M. FERNANDES, F. SOARES, T. CHEE, R. MARTINS. “Thin films applied to optical position sensitive detectors”. Thin Solid Films, 317, pp 421-424 (1998).

R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO. “Simulation of the Lateral Effect in Large Area 1D a-Si:H p.i.n Thin Film Position Sensitive Detectors”. SPIE, vol. 2397, pp. 745-756 (1995).

“Optimisation Of Ro Desalination Systems Powered By Renewable Energies”
Duration: 07/97 to 12/00
Partners: Las Palmas University, Spain; FCTUNL (PT); SAAR, Spain; Agricultural University of Athens, Greece; Firenze University, Italy; Bonny, Spain
Responsible: L. Guimarães

This project intends to make a site-extrapolable optimisation of the design of photovoltaic/wind/RO systems using commercial Reverse Osmosis membranes. Its objectives therefore include:
The collection of solar radiation and wind velocity data for potential sites in various geographical locations; The simulation of solar photovoltaic/wind energy inputs into a pilot RO plant that will be made to function under different modes of operation and under the climatic conditions particular to each of the potential sites; An assessment of the effect of the discontinuities and changes in the availability of solar and wind energies on pressure variations and, hence, on the flow, salt rejection and the useful life of the membranes; Extrapolable optimisation of the design of photovoltaic/wind/RO systems for a number of sites

“Liquid Crystal Displays”
Iberoamerican programme for the development of science and technology-CYTED, sub-programme IX, Microelectronics.
Duration: from 04/95 to 12/00.
Partners: all Latin America countries, Portugal and Spain.
Responsible: R. Martins

This network aims to bring together scientists and technologists from the Universities and from the Industries to allow the required development in the Ibero-Latin- America countries, in the field of microelectronics, with special emphasis to flat panel displays.

Summary of the main results achieved

Within the scope of this network, 3 international workshops were already organised [Brazil, Campinas (1995), Portugal, Monte de Caparica (1996) and Madrid, Spain (1998)]. Within this network, 8 communications were already presented during the organised workshops.
BAIA, I., M. Quintela and R. MARTINS, Electro-optical properties of large area ITO layers produced by r.f. magnetron sputtering, in II Iberoamerican Seminar in Liquid Crystal Display Technologies, Lisbon, 7-9 de October, p. 33 (1996).
MARTINS, R., Materials and technologies used to process active matrices to address flat panel displays, in II Iberoamerican Seminar in Liquid Crystal Display Technologies, Lisbon, 7-9 de October; p. 15 (1996).

“Tribological Thin PVD Coatings for Engineering Components”
Duration: from 04/96 to 12/00.
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); CSIC (SP); Univ. of Salford (UK); Centre Suisse Electronique et Microelectronique (CH); AEA Technology, Harwell (UK); TEKNIKER (SP); Asociacion Industrial de Navarra (SP); MATS UK Ltd. (UK); IAPETOS SA, Athens (GR).
Responsible: R. Martins

This is a European network established in the frame of the COST programme that recommended it to be financed by the Portuguese government (A classified project), which never happened. The main action is to undertake a co-ordinated study of hard coatings formed using vacuum-based methods with a view to determine optimum processing techniques for the production of existing and novel coatings with improved tribological properties.
Summary of the main results achieved
Up now 3 main workshops were organised to discuss project results and to establish co-operative teams: Venice, 1996 (Italy), Prague, 1997 (Check), Helsinki, 1998, (Finland).

“The Electric home. Forging Local Alliances On Rural Electrification Through Workshops In Italy, Portugal And Greece”
Duration: 31/03/98 to 07/99
Partners: WIP (D); FCTUNL (PT); Clean Power Ltd (GR); ETA SRL (IT).
Responsible: L. Guimarães

The overall objective of this action is to disseminate the findings of the previous EC DGXII APAS-RENA ElectricHome project directly to the target group in southern Europe. This will result in the awareness of local actors on the number of non-grid-connected houses, the economical and social situation of their inhabitants, on solutions to improve the working and living conditions of the local population and on market opportunities for local enterprises dealing with PV system sale & installation

Summary of the main results achieved
From this activity it were organised in the beginning of 1999 to workshops, one in Lisbon (held 5/8 Feb. 1999, with 82 attendees) and the other in Guarda (22 to 23 Feb. 1999, with 110 attends). There, the different scenarios and PV perspectives were discussed with industrial and governmental people (see annex).

“Optimised Sensor Location and sampling Methods in Industrial Stacks for Environment Monitoring-OLASIS”
contract number SMT4-CT95-2032
Duration: 02/96 to 05/99.
Responsible: R. Martins, M. Vieira

The fundamental objective of this project is to develop a methodology aimed at achieving higher levels of representation of the samples obtained from stacks of industrial plants as a result of better sensor location. The final objective is to achieve accuracies better than ?5% in flue-gas-flow measurements.

Summary of the main results achieved
The main results achieved were: validation of a predictive model and a neural network applied to gas plants. Data basis concerning methods to monitor gas flows and disposal atmosphere gases. Implementation of specific software tools for gas plant control and monitoring. Related to this project, 7 papers in international journal and proceedings with referee were produced.

FORTUNATO, E., A. MALIK, R. MARTINS, Amorphous Silicon Sensors: From Photo to Chemical Detection, J. Non-Crystalline Solids, 227-230, pp.1349-1353 (1998).

FORTUNATO, E., A. MALIK, R. MARTINS, Photochemical Sensors Based on Amorphous Silicon Thin Films, Sensors & Actuators B, 46, pp. 202-207 (1998).

FORTUNATO, E., A. MALIK, A. Sêco, L. Fernandes, A. Bicho, A. Maçarico and R. MARTINS, High sensitivity photochemical sensors based on amorphous silicon, in Proc. of MRS Amorphous and Microcrystalline Silicon Technology, S. Francisco, USA, 2-8 April de 1997, 467, pp.949-954 (1997).

Computer Tools in Employment Orientation”
Duration: 04/97 to 12/98
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); University of Bucharest – Romania
Responsible: L. Guimarães (coordinator)

The aim of this project is to enhance the educational co-operation with the University of Bucharest, in the field of using computer tools for educational programmes where the study case are the environment, the materials and the energy.

“Improved Microcontact technology for power electronics”
Duration: 07/96 to 12/98.
Partners: CEM (D); CEMOP/UNINOVA (P); COMPONENTES SEMICONDUTORES DE PORTUGAL-CSP (P); Antriebstechnik und Mikroektronik (D).
Responsible: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to perform a feasibility study concerning the implementation in SME’s of the results achieved within the IMMICO project, as suggested by the Commission as a first step for the exploitation of the results. The study was performed but, due to restrict rules of the commission about what is considered SME, we could not proceed to the second CRAFT phase since the Germany Company was bought by a large industry and so, lost the SME status.

"Micropowder Processing Using Low-Pressure Plasma Technologies"
Contract nºBRE2-CT94-0944.
Duration: from 1/05/94 to 30/04/98.
Responsible: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to study the role of powder formation in PECVD systems, their influence on film properties, and how to control it. Besides that, the work performed envisaged to produce ceramic powder for catalysers. The basic research performed led to the definition in which conditions desirable powder could be formed as well as how to produce films with excellent electro-optical characteristics in the so-called gamma regime. That is, to produce a new type of material with excellent properties for device applications (polymorph films and nanocrystalline films).

Summary of the main results achieved
The work performed led to obtain all main expected deliverables (the definition of control tools and specific process conditions that lead to the formation of powders and its control). Besides that, more than 150 scientific papers (only in scientific journals) were made, including the realisation of 6 PhD thesis, within the consortium. As a consequence of this project and inter-related with it the members of the project lead to the formation a task force in the field of “Dusty Plasma”. This group had his first meeting in January 1998 and still is carrying on the realisation of workshops each year (see annex 1). For the year 2000, the Workshop will be held in Lisbon (as elected) under the chairperson of R. Martins.
The European Commission considered this work as an “outstanding” project where the Portuguese contribution was very well considered. In this project our main involvement was in the film’s characterisation and engineering modelling of the reactor. This project gave the support for the formation of the PhD students N. Carvalho (actually, working in the “Centre of Molecular Physics (CFM) and also of the Assistant proofs of I. Ferreira (DCM/FCTUNL) and G. Lavareda (DCM/FCTUNL). From the Portuguese team the project also gave place to mutual personnel interchanges with the GREMI (students mobility within the SOCRATES programme), UB (participation in PhD discussions), CRPP and LPICM (scientific papers). From this project also resulted to publish 1 chapter in a book and 29 scientific papers.

Main Papers Published
CB R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA, E. FORTUNATO. “Wide Band Gap Microcrystalline Silicon Thin Films”. Solid State Phenomena, vols. 44-46, “Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon” edited by G.E. Murch, H. Neber-Aeschbacher and F.H. Wöhlbier, Scitec Publications Ltd, pp. 299-346 (1995).

R. MARTINS, M. VIEIRA, I. FERREIRA, E. FORTUNATO “Role of Oxygen Partial Pressure on the Properties of Doped Silicon Oxycarbide Microcrystalline Layers Produced by Spatial Separation Techniques”.. J. Vac. Sci. Technol., vol. A13 n.4, p. 2199 (1995).

R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO. “Dark Current-Voltage Characteristics of Transverse Asymmetric Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon Diodes”. Journal of App. Physics, vol. 75 n.5, p. 3481 (1995).

A. MAÇARICO, M. VIEIRA, A. FANTONI, P. LOURO, A. SÊCO, R. MARTINS, C. HOLLENSTEIN “On the a-Si:H film growth: role of the powder formation”.. J. Non-Cryst. Solids, vols. 198-200, pp. 1207-1211 (1996).

C. COURTEILLE, CH. HOLLENSTEIN, J-L. DORIER, P. GAY, W. SCHAWARZENBACH, A.A. HOWLING, E. BERTRAN, G. VERA, R. MARTINS, A. MAÇARICO “Powder agglomeration study in rf silane plasmas by in-situ polarisation-sensitive laser light scattering and TEM measurements”.. J. App. Phys. 80, pp. 2069-2076 (1996).

A. FANTONI, M. VIEIRA, J. CRUZ, R. SCHWARZ, R. MARTINS “Two dimensional numerical simulation of a non-uniformly illuminated amorphous silicon solar cell”.. J. Applied Physics D, 29, pp. 3154-3159 (1996).

R. MARTINS, A. MAÇARICO, I. FERREIRA, R. NUNES, A. BICHO, E. FORTUNATO “Highly conductive and highly transparent n-type microcrystalline silicon thin films”.. Thin Solid Films 303 pp. 47-52 (1997).

A. FANTONI, M. VIEIRA, J. CRUZ, R. MARTINS “Modelling auc-Si:H p.i.n device under non-uniform illumination”.. Thin Solid Films, 296, pp. 110-113 (1997).

“Improved Microcontact Technology- IMMICO”
project, nº BRE2-CT94-1025
Duration: from 1/04/94 to 30/08/98.
Responsible: R. Martins

This project was industry oriented and deal with the improvement and optimisation of the existing technologies used to joint electronic components and allow a substantial decrease in the allowable tolerances between adjacent joints (below 100 ?m) aimed to resist to high temperatures and particle bombardments. The study cases defined were the satellite applications (Alcatel) and the electronic industry for sensor and medical applications (Dassault and Siemens). The main work of the institutes was to develop the technology and to test it.

Summary of the main results achieved
The results achieved lead to the definition of new metallurgical systems for join applications such as the ones based in Sn-Au and In-Au. The industrial partners will use these systems for microjoins under confidential agreement, allowing also the definition of a database concerning the type of tests to be performed in joins aiming their certification. The project already finished and was strongly recommended to use the results achieved at the institutes for a CRAFT oriented project and also with recommendations for the implementation of the achievements of the Portuguese group towards the application to SME within Portugal. Due to the industrial character of this project, most of the results were not disclosed in papers, being the results presented mainly during the EuPac conference (Packaging, Welding and interconnects conference, sponsored by the E.U. and by the Germany welding society) or the ones sponsored by the E.U. Commission. To these events we have presented 4 papers, dealing mainly with the academic research performed. At the end, the UE commission considered one of the outsanding technical projects whose technical objectives were fully achieved.

Main Papers Published
Harder, T., P. Kertz, R. MARTINS, D. Mathelin, R. Oppelt, B.C. Petersen, I. Shvets, Small gap intermetallic joining for high temperature applications
- in Proc. HITEN 97, 14-17 September 1997, Toulouse, France.

“Microfabrication with Synchrotron Radiation”
HCM, project nºERBCHRXCT930394
Duration: from 04/94 to 09/97.
Responsible: R. Martins, M. Vieira

The objectives of this project are technology transfer and training of researchers in the field of LIGA-technology and complementary areas of microfabrication.

Summary of the main results achieved
Within this project, our main work was in the field of developing possible moulds for the fabrication of micro-sensors. Besides that, B. FERNANDES spent 6 months in Trieste aiming to enhance his know-how in the LIGA technology. As far as sensors are concerning, besides the project presentations a workshop was organised in Lisbon (NOVEMBER 1996, with about 85 attends from members of the consortium, members from others networks working in similar fields and from European East countries). There, 15 oral presentations and 25 posters were presented. Apart from the contacts were established to receive post-docs from Romania (L. GRIGORE) and from Ukraine.

Main Papers Published
M. VIEIRA, Speed photo detectors based on amorphous and microcrystalline silicon p-i-n devices, Appl. Phys. Lett., 70, 220-222 (1997).
M. VIEIRA, S. KOYONOV, A. FANTONI AND R. SCHWARZ, Wide Spectral response in ?c-Si:H photodiodes, Thin Solid Films, 296, 164-167 (1997).
A.FANTONI, M.VIEIRA, J.Cruz, R.MARTINS, Modelling??c-Si:H p.i.n device under non-uniform illumination, Thin Solid Films, 296, 110-113 (1997).
A. MALIK, A. SÊCO, E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS, B. SHABASHKEVICH, S. PIROSZENKO, A new high ultraviolet sensitivity FTO-GaP photodiode fabricated by spray pyrolysis, Semiconductor Science and Technology, 13, 102-107 (1998).

“Study and development of thin film transistors to address monochromatic flat panel displays”
JNICT/CAPES, process 423/CAPES (1997).
Duration: from 04/97
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); LME/USP (BR); IMPE/U.Camp. (BR).
Responsible: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to enhance the scientific and technical co-operation between Portugal and Brazil, in the field of thin film technology applied to microelectronics and optoelectronics. Therefore, the project basically sponsored the travels and stay of young Brazilian researchers in Portugal, while the Brazilian were also financed to perform their R&D work.
Summary of the main results achieved
After the first year, no funds were supplied to the Brazilian researchers and so the project was suspended.

“Electric Home – Assessment of Non-Electrified Houses in Southern Europe and Identification of PV System requirements for Accelerated Large Scale Deployment of Photovoltaic Energy”
Duration: 01/95 to 07/96
Partners: WIP – Germany; Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria – Spain; FCTUNL (PT); Clean Power Ltd. – Greece; ETA SRL.- Italy; JRC Ispra – Italy
Responsible: L. Guimarães

The overall objectives of the project were to quantify the number of non grid-connected houses in Southern Europe and to identify their main architectural, technical and socio-economic features. Based-on these results has defined the overall potential of PV stand-alone systems in these countries and have been investigated system requirements matching the energy demand with a high level of reliability and durability.

Summary of the main results achieved
The project is already finished being the main objectives accomplished.
Hanel, A., L. Kalliveroussis, M. Sala, S. Magni, A. Gomez Gotor, G. Piernazieja Izquierdo, L. GUIMARÃES, C. Helmke, H. Ossenbrik, Electric Home: Assembling of non Electricity Houses in Southern Europe, in Proc. 14th Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Barcelona, Spain 1997), ed. W. Palz, H.A. Ossembrink e P. Helm, pp. 2631-2634 (1997).

“Development of PV Powered Irrigation Scheme for High Value Crops with Integrated PV-System Approach, Especially Adapted to Stand-alone Applications”
Duration: 10/92 to 05/96
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); WIP – Germany
Responsible: L. Guimarães (coordinator)

The main objective of the project was to develop an integrated PV system for water pumping and irrigation of high-value crops having PV as the only energy source.
A special emphasis was laid on the water delivery sub-system which was design and built-up based-on a concept of modularity. This new approach allows an independent and automatic irrigation in different system branches, according with local conditions and water necessity.
It is fully operational and delivers water for agricultural purposes to around 60 farmers.

“Training and Information Network in renewable Energies-TRAINRE”
Duration: 01/95 TO 05/96
Partners: EUREC Agency – Belgium; Institut des Energies Renouvelables pour le Pacifique Sud - French Polynesie; GENEC – France; Hyperion Energy Systems Ltd. – Ireland; University College Cork – Ireland; FCTUNL (PT); Netherlands Energy Research Foundation – Netherlands; CONPHOEBUS S.C.R.L. – Italy; Asian Institute of Technology – Thailand; Ecole des Mines de Paris – France; Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy – Germany; Universitat Oldenburg – Germany; ECOFYS – Netherlands;University of Northumbria - U.K.
Responsible: L. Guimarães

The objective of TRAINRE was to develop high quality courses in renewable energies and photovoltaics that incorporate the best practice achieved at European and International level and can be used by Universities and Centres in developing countries. These courses have been made available either as a "two weeks full-time intensive course" or as a "kernel of a Master Degree at University level". During the project development was identified the necessity of a third course, namely short-time non-technical course for senior decision-makers, which has also been developed.

Summary of the main results achieved
The project is already finished being the main objectives accomplished that led to the submission of a project aiming to have an MSc course supported by the Commission. That was approved, being the co-ordinator of this course L.GUIMARÃES.

“PV for World's Village”
contract nº EC DGXII RENA-CT94-0027
Duration: 01/95 TO 07/96
Partners:EUREC Agency (BE); GENEC (FR); Universidad Politecnica de Madrid - Spain
BP Solar - U.K.; UNL - FCT (PT); WIP – Germany; EUROSOLAR – Germany; SIDEF – France; ITPower - U.K.; Universitat Karlsruhe – Germany
Responsible: L. Guimarães

The aim of the project was to catalyse sustainable large- scale integration of PV in developing countries by elaboration a global plan for PV electrification of villages. This plan target technological, financial, political and organisational as well as social issues. This plan was developed in four steps: (1) Evaluation of basic electricity needs; (2) Definition and standardisation of PV systems; (3) Establishment of ready to apply financing schemes;
(4) Final synthesis of all elements required for large-scale PV village electrification in a global model plan; The elements of the global model plan cover a variety of different situations, in order to enable target driven as well as commercially driven PV electrification activities

Summary of the main results achieved
The project is already finished being the main objectives accomplished.
CARACALEANU, C., A. GONÇALVES, L. GUIMARÃES, Educational Environment and the Energy Problem Solving in Developing Countries, in Proc. 14th Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference (Barcelona, Spain 1997), ed. W. Palz, H.A. Ossembrink e P. Helm, pp. 955-957 (1997).

“Systems of Energy production and use in a changing Shelia environment-Potentialities and Policies”
EC DGXII CI1 – CT93-0348
Duration: .07/94 to 02/96
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); ORSTOM (France)
Responsible: L. Guimarães (coordinator)

The objective of this project was the identification of guidelines for a better integration of energy issues in development models. These guidelines were obtained through an institutional, economic, social and political analysis based on four representative countries of Sahel region - Niger, Burkina-Faso, Guinea Bissau and Senegal.

“Amorphous silicon PV technology - OASIS-II”
Program HCM, ERBCHBGCT920045 (1992).
Duration: 11/91 to 04/93
Partners: U. Delft, (NL); U. Utrecht (NL); U. Eindhoven (NL); U. Stuttgart (DE); NAPS (FR); Microchemical (FL); CIEMAT (ES); IMEC (BE); UNINOVA/CEMOP (PT).
Responsible: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to change personnel and to improve the understanding of PV technologies related to a-Si:H. In the basis of this programme we receive students from other countries to start its education in this field.

Main results achieved
Improving contacts and cooperation with other European groups working in the field. Namely, we would like to notice the work of A. Fantoni that joint the group due to this programme.
R. MARTINS, A. FANTONI, M. VIEIRA. “Tailoring Defects on Amorphous Silicon PIN Devices”. J. of Non-Cryst. Solids, vols. 164-166, (1993), pp.671-674.
A. FANTONI, R. MARTINS, M. VIEIRA. “Improving Solar Cell Stability by Defects Tailoring”.
Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symposium, ISDRS, Vol. 1, pp. 299-302 (1993).

“Surface conditioning of electronic components for clean joining process”
Brite-EuRam I, 4446/90
Duration: 06/1992 to 11/95.
Partners: Phillips, (NL); RCA (GB); FCTUNL (PT); Daimler Benz (DE).
Participant: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to determine the conditions that lead to avid the use of rosins and resins during the join process of electronic components. This also includes the study of the most correct past that could lead to perform clean free joins or the least without using aggressive components of the environment.

Summary of the results achieved
The selection of the paste and its characterization was fully achieved as well as the development of a simulation program aiming to predict the role of the sizes of the constituted of the past on the electrical behaviour of the past when has to sustain different temperatures.

“Optimisation of amorphous silicon solar modules OASIS”
JOULE, 0045/CE/618 (1990/93).
Duration: 05-1990 to 04/94
Partners: U. Delft, (NL); U. Utrecht (NL); U. Eindhoven (NL); U. Stuttgart (DE); NAPS (FR); NESTOY (FL); CIEMAT (ES); IMEC (BE); UNINOVA/CEMOP (PT).
Responsible: R. Martins

The aim of this project was to establish the process conditions that lead to the production of amorphous silicon solar cells with efficiencies above 8% in large areas (above 30cmx30cm) with production costs below 2.5 ECU. One of the main emphasis was put in the improvement of the TCO layer and device interfaces. Apart from that, to establish the tools for quality control of the devices produced.

Summary of the results achieved
At a laboratory level it was proved the availability to improve the open circuit voltage of the devices by using microcrystalline silicon carbide boron doped front layers; it was established the need of using a protective layer in front of the ITO in order to avoid its reduction during device production as well established the data base for device modelling. Apart from that it was achieved the goals concerning the improvement of device efficiency without solving the problem of device light degradation.
This project established also the conditions for other projects industry oriented involving some of the partners. The main emphasis was put in improving the concept of reactor box of NAPS.

Main Publications
R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA. “Engineering of the Energy Coupling in PECVD System used to produce large area a-Si:H coatings”. Vacuum, vol. 45 n.10/11, (1994), pp. 1107-1108.

M. VIEIRA, E. FORTUNATO, G. LAVAREDA, C.N. CARVALHO, R. MARTINS. “Role of Photo degradation on the µ? Product and Microstructure of the a-Si:H PIN Devices”. MRS Symp. Amorphous Silicon Technology, Vol. 297, pp. 637-642 (1993).

R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA. “The energy coupling in PECVD systems used to produce large area a-Si:H Devices”. Int. Semiconductor Device Research Symp., ISDRS, Vol. 1, pp.157-160 (1993).

M. VIEIRA, E. FORTUNATO, C.N. CARVALHO, G. LAVAREDA, F. SOARES, R. MARTINS. “Temperature and Light Induced Degradation Effect on a-Si:H Photovoltaic PIN Device Properties”. EUROPTO-Int. Symp. on Phys. Concepts and Mat. for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applic. II (1993). Proc. SPIE, Vol. 1985, pp. 558-569 (1993).

M. VIEIRA, R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO, F. SOARES, L. GUIMARÃES. “Transient Versus Steady State Measurements on the Transport Properties of a-Si:H Films”. MRS Symp. Amorphous Silicon Technology, Vol. 258, pp. 753-758 (1992).

R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA, C.N. CARVALHO, A. MAÇARICO, L. GUIMARÃES. “Engineering of PECVD Systems for Macroelectronics Applications”. MRS Symp. Amorphous Silicon Technology, Vol. 258, pp.153-158 (1992).

J.M.M. DE NIJS, C. CARVALHO, M. SANTOS, R. MARTINS. “A Thin SiO Layer as a Remedy for the Indium Reduction at the In2O3/µc-Si:C:H Interface”. Applied Surface Science, Vol. 52, (1991), pp. 339-342.

G. WILLEKE, R. MARTINS. “On the Structural, Optical, and Electronic Properties of Microcrystalline Si:O:C:H Thin Films Prepared in Two-Consecutive-Decomposition-Deposition-Chamber System”. Phil. Mag. B, Vol. 63, Nº 1, (1991), pp. 79-86.
C. CARVALHO, J.M.M. NIJS, R. MARTINS, L. GUIMARÃES. “Role of SiO at TCO/p interface on the electrical properties of the p/i junction”. MRS Symp. A-Si Tech. Vol. 219, pp. 487-492 (1991).

M. VIEIRA, R. MARTINS, E. FORTUNATO, F. SOARES, L. GUIMARÃES. “a-Si:H Ambipolar Diffusion Length and Effective Lifetime Measured by Flying Spot Technique (FST)”. MRS Symp. Amorphous Silicon Technology, Vol. 219, pp. 863-868 (1991).
I. FERREIRA, R. MARTINS, M. ZEMAN, M.J. GEERTS, J.W. METSELAAR. “CPM and PDS studies of glow discharge a-SiGe:H alloys”. Techn. Digest of the Int. PVSEC-5, P-IIA-12, pp. 805-808 (1990).

E. FORTUNATO, A. AMARAL, L. RODRIGUES, N. CARVALHO, L. GUIMARÃES, R. MARTINS. “Determination of the DOS in amorphous silicon by SCLC in ITO/i/ITO structures and by C(T) in Schottky diodes”. Techn. Digest of the Int. PVSEC-5, P-IIA-14, pp. 813-816 (1990).

I. FERREIRA, R. MARTINS, M. ZEMAN, M.J. GEERTS AND J.W. METSELAAR. “CPM and PDS studies of glow discharge a-SiGe:H alloys”. Techn. Digest of the Int. PVSEC-5, P-IIA-12, pp. 805-808 (1990).

“Hydrogenated amorphous silicon integrated tandem solar cells produced by a two consecutive decomposition and deposition chamber (TCDDC) system - AMOR”
JOULE, EN 3S-0144-P
Duration: 06/88 to 01/91.
Partners: FCTUNL (PT); WIP (D).
Responsible: L. Guimarães

The aim of this project was to develop a new deposition technique aimed to produce electronic graded amorphous silicon

Summary of the results achieved
The development of a new process technique and its patent was realized, able to produce devices up to sizes of about 389 cm2 in size.

Main publications
R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA, N. CARVALHO, L. GUIMARÃES. “Design of plasma deposition systems for producing a-Si:H devices”. Int. PVSEC-6, ed. B.K. Das, S.N. Singh, p. 655-660 (1992).

E. FORTUNATO, M. VIEIRA, R. MARTINS, L. GUIMARÃES. “Interface characterization of a-Si:H devices by spectral photovoltage technique (SPT)”. Int. PVSEC-6, ed. B.K. Das, S.N. Singh, pp. 661-665 (1992).

C. CARVALHO, E. FORTUNATO, M. VIEIRA, R. MARTINS, B. FERNANDES, L. GUIMARÃES. “Role of hydrogen plasma on the structural and electro-optical properties of transparent conductive oxides”. Int. PVSEC-6, ed. B.K. Das, S.N. Singh, pp. 667-671 (1992).

E. FORTUNATO, L. RODRIGUES, C. CARVALHO, R. MARTINS, A. AMARAL, L. GUIMARÃES. “Comparative study of DOS in amorphous silicon by SCLC and C(T) measurements”. Int. PVSEC-6, ed. B.K. Das, S.N. Singh, pp. 673-678 (1992).

A. AMARAL, L. RODRIGUES, R. MARTINS, L. GUIMARÃES, D. MENCARAGLIA, J.P. KLEIDER, Z. DJEBBOUR, C. LONGEAUD. “Admittance spectroscopy techniques to analyze the evolution of the deep gap states in amorphous silicon films produced by PECVD”. Int. PVSEC-6, ed. B.K. Das, S.N. Singh, pp. 679-684 (1992).

R. MARTINS, M. QUINTELA, N. CARVALHO, A. MAÇARICO, F. SOARES, I. FERREIRA, E. FORTUNATO, I. BAÍA, L. GUIMARÃES. “Design of high throughput systems for processing a-Si solar cells”. Proc. 11th EPVSEC, ed. L. Guimarães, W. Palz, C. de Reyff, H. Kiess, P. Helm, pp. 84-87 (1992).

M. VIEIRA, E. FORTUNATO, F. SOARES, R. MARTINS, L. GUIMARÃES. “On the transport mechanism of a-Si:H devices. Light and temperature degradation”. Proc. 11th EPVSEC, ed. L. Guimarães, W. Palz, C. de Reyff, H. Kiess, P. Helm, pp. 187-190 (1992).

I. FERREIRA, R. MARTINS. “Electro-optical performances of amorphous silicon carbide layers obtained by PECVD, using C2H4 or CH4 as hydride carbon sources”. Proc. 11th EPVSEC, ed. L. Guimarães, W. Palz, C. de Reyff, H. Kiess, P. Helm, pp. 549-552 (1992).

E. FORTUNATO, M. VIEIRA, C. CARVALHO, R. MARTINS, L. GUIMARÃES. “Role of power density on the density of states and (n???e product of a-Si:H films produced by PECVD”. Proc. 11th EPVSEC, ed. L. Guimarães, W. Palz, C. de Reyff, H. Kiess, P. Helm, pp. 692-694 (1992).

L. GUIMARÃES, R. MARTINS, M. SANTOS, A. MAÇARICO, N. CARVALHO, E. FORTUNATO, M. VIEIRA. “Hydrogenated thin film Silicon Semiconductors Produced by a Two Consecutive Decomposition and Deposition Chamber System”. Vacuum Tech. Applic. & Ion Phys., Vol. 39, Nº 7/8, (1989), pp. 789-790.

E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS, I. FERREIRA, M. SANTOS, A. MAÇARICO, L. GUIMARÃES. “Tunneling in Vertical µc-Si/a-SixCyOz:H/µc-Si Heterostructures”. J. of Non-Cryst. Solids, Nº 115, (1989), pp. 120-122.

L. GUIMARÃES, M. SANTOS, A. MAÇARICO, N. CARVALHO, R. MARTINS. “Enhancement of Voc by n- and p-type µc-Si:C:H wide band gap material produced in a TCDDC system”. Clean and safe energy forever, Proc. of the ISES, eds T. Horigome, K. Kimura, T. Takakura, T. Nishino, I. Fujii, Vol. 1, pp.187-191 (1989).

G. WILLEKE, R. MARTINS, M. VIEIRA, E. FORTUNATO, I. FERREIRA, M. SANTOS, A. MAÇARICO, N. CARVALHO, L. GUIMARÃES. “A New Weakly Absorbing and Highly Conductive (µc-SixCyOz:H) Material Produced by a TCDDC System”. Clean and safe energy forever, Proc. of the ISES, eds T. Horigome, K. Kimura, T. Takakra, T. Nishino, I. Fujii, Vol. 1, pp. 217-221 (1989).

I. FERREIRA, M. VIEIRA, E. FORTUNATO, R. MARTINS, G. WILLEKE, L. GUIMARÃES. “Structural and electro-optical properties presented by WBG-µc-SixCyOz:H Films”. Proc. 9th EC-PVSEC, ed. W. Palz, G.T. Wrixon, P. Helm, pp. 1002-1005 (1989).


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